RGS has treated more than 3000 patients and has been validated by neuroscience experts and clinicians in several hospitals.  

The clinical trials performed during the last 10 years have shown that training with RGS increases recovery in the acute, subacute and chronic phases of stroke.

  • RGS helps improve speed and fluidity of movement, but especially helps in the recovery of the functionality of arms, hands, and legs.
  • Most importantly, patients that train with RGS maintain the achieved motor improvements for a long time.
  • The clinical trials have shown that RGS combined with standard therapy is more effective in promoting recovery of function when compared to Occupational Therapy alone.
  • RGS is the only system in the world that has an outstanding clinical track record.

The scientific results of the clinical trials have been published in more than 40 papers in leading international journals.

————————————————–   Selected Publications ———————————————

[46] Mura, A., Maier, M., Ballester, B. R., De la Torre Costa, J., López-Luque, J., Gelineau, A., … & Verschure, P. F. (2022). Bringing rehabilitation home with an e-health platform to treat stroke patients: study protocol of a randomized clinical trial (RGS@ home)Trials23(1), 1-12

[45] English, C., Ceravolo, M. G., Dorsch, S., Drummond, A., Gandhi, D. B., Halliday Green, J., … & Savitz, S. (2022). Telehealth for rehabilitation and recovery after stroke: State of the evidence and future directionsInternational Journal of Stroke, 17474930211062480

[44] Amil, A. F., Ballester, B. R., Maier, M., & Verschure, P. F. (2022). Chronic use of cannabis might impair sensory error processing in the cerebellum through endocannabinoid dysregulationAddictive Behaviors131, 107297.

[43] Grechuta, K., De La Torre Costa, J., Ballester, B. R., & Verschure, P. (2021). Challenging the boundaries of the physical self: distal cues impact body ownership. Frontiers in human neuroscience15, 704414.

[42] Belén Rubio Ballester, Fabrizio Antenucci, Martina Maier, Anthony CC Coolen, Paul FMJ Verschure. Estimating upper-extremity function from kinematics in stroke patients following goal-oriented computer-based training. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 18 (1), 1-17. 2021

[41] A Wearable Device to Overcome Post-Stroke Learned Non-Use. Methodology, Design and Usability of the Rehabilitation Gaming System for wearables. De la Torre Costa J., Ballester B.R., Verschure P.F.M.J. IC-IHAW 2021 Conference. 8-9 November 2021.

[40] Caballeria, E., Maier, M., Balcells-Oliveró, M., López-Pelayo, H., Oliveras, C., Rubio Ballester, B., … & Gual, A. (2021). Rehabilitation Gaming System for Alcohol-Related Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Usability StudyAlcohol and Alcoholism. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agab043

[39] Ballester, B. R., Ward, N. S., Brander, F., Maier, M., Kelly, K., & Verschure, P. F. (2021). Relationship between intensity and recovery in post-stroke rehabilitation: a retrospective analysisJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2021-326948

[38] Wiers, R. W., & Verschure, P. (2020). Curing the broken brain model of addiction: Neurorehabilitation from a systems perspectiveAddictive Behaviors, 106602.

[37] Grechuta, K., Rubio Ballester, B., Espín Munné, R., Usabiaga Bernal, T., Molina Hervás, B., Mohr, B., Pulvermüller, F., San Segundo, R. M. and Verschure, P. Multisensory cueing facilitates naming in aphasia. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 17 (1): 122 (2020).

[36] Maier, M., Ballester, B. R., Bañuelos, N. L., Oller, E. D., & Verschure, P. F. (2020). Adaptive conjunctive cognitive training (ACCT) in virtual reality for chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trialJournal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation17(1), 1-20.

[35] Maier, M., Ballester, B. R., & Verschure, P. F. (2019). Principles of neurorehabilitation after stroke based on motor learning and brain plasticity mechanisms. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience13, 74.

[34] Rubio Ballester, B., Maier, M., Duff, A., Cameirao, M., Bermudez, S., Duarte, E., … & Verschure, P. F. (2019). A critical time window for recovery extends beyond one-year post-stroke. Journal of NeurophysiologyVolume 122, Issue 1,  Pages 350-357.

[33] Grechuta, K., Rubio Ballester, B., Espín Munne, R., Usabiaga Bernal, T., Molina Hervás, B., Mohr, B., … & Verschure, P. (2019). Augmented Dyadic Therapy Boosts Recovery of Language Function in Patients With Nonfluent Aphasia: A Randomized Controlled TrialStroke50:1270–1274. – https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023729

[32]  Grechuta, K., Ulysse, L., Rubio Ballester, B., & Verschure, P. (2019). Self beyond the body: action-driven and task-relevant purely distal cues modulate performance and body ownershipFrontiers in Human Neuroscience13, 91.

[31]  Maier, M., Rubio Ballester, B., Duff, A., Duarte Oller, E., & Verschure, P. F. (2019). Effect of Specific Over Nonspecific VR-Based Rehabilitation on Poststroke Motor Recovery: A Systematic Meta-analysis. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair33(2), 112-129.

[30] Maier, M., Bañuelos, N. L., Ballester, B. R., Duarte, E., & Verschure, P. F. (2017, July). Conjunctive rehabilitation of multiple cognitive domains for chronic stroke patients in virtual reality. In Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), 2017 International Conference on (pp. 947-952). IEEE.

[29] Ballester, B. R., Nirme, J., Camacho, I., Duarte, E., Rodríguez, S., Cuxart, A., … & Verschure, P. F. (2017). Domiciliary VR-Based Therapy for Functional Recovery and Cortical Reorganization: Randomized Controlled Trial in Participants at the Chronic Stage Post Stroke. JMIR serious games, 5(3), e15-e15.

[28] Grechuta, K., Bellaster, B. R., Munné, R. E., Bernal, T. U., Hervás, B. M., San Segundo, R., & Verschure, P. F. (2017, July). The effects of silent visuomotor cueing on word retrieval in Broca’s aphasics: A pilot study. In Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), 2017 International Conference on (pp. 193-199). IEEE.

[27] Grechuta, K., Guga, J., Maffei, G., Ballester, B. R., & Verschure, P. F. (2017). Visuotactile integration modulates motor performance in a perceptual decision-making task. Scientific reports, 7(1), 3333.

[26] Marwecki S, Ballester BR, Duarte E, Verschure PFMJ. Goal-oriented feedback on motor behavior in virtual reality based stroke therapy: A case study using the rehabilitation gaming system. Edorium J Disabil Rehabil 2017;3:36–45.

[25] Klaudia Grechuta, Belen Rubio, Armin Duff, Esther Duarte Olle, Friedemann Pulvermüller, Paul Verschure. (2016). Intensive language-action therapy in virtual reality for a rehabilitation gaming systemJournal of Pain Management9(3), 243.

[24] Ballester, B. R., Maier, M., Mozo, R. M. S. S., Castañeda, V., Duff, A., & Verschure, P. F. (2016). Counteracting learned non-use in chronic stroke patients with reinforcement-induced movement therapy. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 13(1), 74.

[23]  Ballester, B. R., Lathe, A., Duarte, E., Duff, A., & Verschure13, P. F. A Wearable Bracelet Device for Promoting Arm Use in Stroke Patients. Conference: Neurotechnix 15, Volume: Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics

[22] Ballester, B. R., Nirme, J., Duarte, E., Cuxart, A., Rodriguez, S., Verschure, P., & Duff, A. (2015). “The visual amplification of goal-oriented movements counteracts acquired non-use in hemiparetic stroke patients“. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation12(1), 50.

[21] Maier M, Ballester B, San Segundo Mozo R, Duff A. Verschure PFMJ: Virtual reality rehabilitation for patients with spatial neglect: a case study. 2015 Presented at: International Conference on Recent Advances in Neurorehabilitaion 2015, At Valencia, Spain; 2015; Valencia.

[20] Grechuta, K, Rubio, B, Duff, A, Duarte Oller, E, and Verschure, P (2014), “Intensive language-action therapy in virtual reality for a rehabilitation gaming system“, Proc. 10th Intl Conf. on Disability, Virtual Reality and Assoc. Technologies, PM Sharkey, L Pareto, J Broeren, M Rydmark (Eds), pp. 265-273, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2-4 Sept. 2014

[19] Rubio, B., Nirme, J., Duarte, E., Cuxart, A., Rodriguez, S., Duff, A., & Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2013). Virtual Reality Based Tool for Motor Function Assessment in Stroke Survivors. In J. L. Pons, D. Torricelli & M. Pajaro (Eds.), Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation (Vol. 1, pp. 1037-1041): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

[18] Nirme, J., Rubio, B., Duff, A., Duarte, E., Rodriguez, S., Cuxart, A., & Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2013). “At Home Motor Rehabilitation in the Chronic Phase of Stroke Using the Rehabilitation Gaming System”. In J. L. Pons, D. Torricelli, & M. Pajaro (Eds.), Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation SE – 151 (Vol. 1, pp. 931–935). Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

[17] Duff, J. Nirme, B.Rubio, E. Duarte, A. Cuxart, S. Rodríguez, P.F.M.J. Verschure “The optimal dosage of the Rehabilitation Gaming System: The impact of a longer period of virtual reality-based and standard occupational training on upper limb recovery in the acute phase of stroke”. Abstract presented during the 22nd European Stroke Conference 2013, LONDON, UK.

[16] Prochnow, D., Bermudez I Badia, S., Schmidt, J., Duff, A., Brunheim, S., Kleiser, R., Seitz, R., et al. “A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of visuomotor processing in a virtual reality-based paradigm: Rehabilitation Gaming System“. The European journal of neuroscience, (January), 1–7, 2013.

[15] Nirme, J., Duff A., & Verschure P.F.M.J. (2012) “Adaptive Enhanced Mapping Of Upper Limb Movement In A Virtual Reality System For Stroke Rehabilitation”. Conference Abstract presented at the 8th FENS Forum of Neuroscience, Barcelona, Spain.

[14] Maier, M., Rubio Ballester, B., Duarte, E., Duff, A. and Verschure, Paul F.M.J. (2012). “Social Integration of Stroke Patients through the Multiplayer Rehabilitation Gaming System“. Games for Training, Education, Health and Sports. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 8395, 2014, pp 100-114.

[13] Duff, A. (2012). Non-immersive virtual reality and motoric neurorehabilitation: Rehabilitation Gaming System. Acta Clin Croat, 51(2).

[12] Mónica S. Cameirão, Sergi Bermúdez i Badia, Esther Duarte, Antonio Frisoli, and Paul F.M.J. Verschure. The combined impact of Virtual Reality Neurorehabilitation and its interfaces on upper extremity functional recovery in patients with chronic stroke. “Stroke”, vol. 43 (10) 2720-2728, 2012

[11] Rodriguez, S., Bermudez i Badia, S., Cameirão, M. S., Fina, A. C., Duarte, E., Duff, A., Verschure, P. F. M. J., et al. (2011). “Effects of Virtual Reality Upper Limb Based Training (Rehabilitation Gaming System) on Spasticity, Shoulder Pain, and Depression After Stroke”. 2011 AAPM&R annual assembly (Vol. 3, p. S160). Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.08.013.

[10] Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2011). “Neuroscience, virtual reality and neurorehabilitation: brain repair as a validation of brain theory”. Conference proceedings for the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. (Vol. 2011, pp. 2254–7). IEEE.

[9] Nirme, J., A. Duff, and P.F.M.J. Verschure. “Adaptive rehabilitation gaming system: On-line individualization of stroke rehabilitation”. in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. 2011. IEEE.

[8] Duff, A., Duarte, E., Cuxart, A., Rodríguez, S., Cameirão, M., i Badia, B. S., & Verschure, P. (2011). Rehabilitation Gaming System (rgs): The Impact Of Virtual Reality Based Training On Upper Limb Recovery In The Acute And Chronic Phase Of Stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 31, 190.

[7] M. S. Cameirao, et al., “Virtual reality based rehabilitation speeds up functional recovery of the upper extremities after stroke: A randomized controlled pilot study in the acute phase of stroke using the Rehabilitation Gaming System“, Restor Neurol Neurosci, vol. 29, pp. 287-98, 2011

[6] M. S. Cameirao, et al., “Neurorehabilitation using the virtual reality based Rehabilitation Gaming System: methodology, design, psychometrics, usability and validation“, J Neuroeng Rehabil, vol. 7, p. 48, 2010. DOI: 10.3233/RNN-2011-0599

[5] Cameirao, M. S., Bermúdez, I. B. S., Duarte Oller, E., & Verschure, P. F. (2009). The rehabilitation gaming system: a review. Stud Health Technol Inform, 145(6).

[4] Cameirão, M. S., Badia, S. B., Oller, E. D., & Verschure, P. F. (2008). Stroke Rehabilitation using the Rehabilitation Gaming System (RGS): Initial Results of a Clinical Study. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine, 146.

[3] Cameirão, M. S., i Badia, S. B., Zimmerli, L., Oller, E. D., & Verschure, P. F. (2007, September). The rehabilitation gaming system: a virtual reality based system for the evaluation and rehabilitation of motor deficits. In Virtual Rehabilitation, 2007 (pp. 29-33). IEEE.

[2] Cameirão, M. S., Badia, S. B. I., Zimmerli, L., Oller, E. D., & Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2007). A virtual reality system for motor and cognitive neurorehabilitation. Challenges for Assistive Technology, 20, 393-397.

[1] Cameirão, M. S., i Badia, S. B., Mayank, K., Guger, C., & Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2007). Physiological responses during performance within a virtual scenario for the rehabilitation of motor deficits. PRESENCE 2007.

Share this post